Several organisations are addressing research waste at many stages of the process. For example, the NIHR Adding value framework: an approach to ensure maximum value from the National Institute of Health Research’s investment (see also the Research Funders Working Group).
Below are some organisations, resources and tools that help to address the problem of waste in research at each of the 5 specific stages:
Stage 1: The questions asked
James Lind Alliance brings patients, carers and clinicians together to identify and prioritise the top 10 uncertainties about the effects of treatments.
Stage 2: Appropriate Design
The Evidence-Based Research Network aims to reduce waste in research by promoting: (i) No new studies without prior systematic review of existing evidence (ii) Efficient production, updating and dissemination of systematic reviews.
The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative brings together people interested in the development and application of agreed standardised sets of outcomes, known as ‘core outcome sets’ (COS), and provides a searchable database.
Stage 3: Appropriate and Efficient Conduct
MoreTrials is a public campaign started in 2016 for more and better randomised trials in medicine. It is supported by over 230 trialists and health researchers from around 35 countries as well as a number of leading research organisations.
(See also the REWARD Working Group on regulation and governance)
Stage 4: All research reported
The AllTrials campaign calls for “All trials registered, all results reported”, and was launched in January 2013. It is an initiative of Ben Goldacre, BMJ, Centre for Evidence-based Medicine, Cochrane Collaboration, James Lind Initiative, PLOS and Sense about Science and is being led in the US by Sense About Science USA, Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine and the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice. Since then, the AllTrials petition has been signed by 93230 people and 739 organisations.
Stage 5: Complete and unbiased reports
The EQUATOR Network is a resource centre for good reporting of health research studies. The website includes reporting guidelines for trials (CONSORT etc), observational studies (STROBE etc), animal studies (ARRIVE), systematic reviews (PRISMA), etc.